Managing Plug-In EVs in Grid Services: Global Market Analysis and Forecasts
The plug-in EV (PEV) industry is interested in vehicle grid integration (VGI) potential. The technology enables direct control of PEV charging, and in some cases, discharging. This capability has many potential uses. The most attractive have been to aggregate PEVs in grid service markets to protect distribution grids, integrate renewables generation, and decrease PEV owner energy costs.
Decarbonization drives VGI. This existential force is creating challenges for the automotive and electric power sectors, and VGI is a critical solution. Established automakers are being pushed to increase PEV production, which has proven costly and difficult to move. The electric power sector is pushed to adopt renewables that are difficult to integrate as a result of intermittency issues, and widescale adoption of PEVs presents threats to local distribution assets.
VGI enables automakers to improve the economics of PEV ownership and the electric power sector to buffer intermittent resources to better meet grid demands and balance loads to protect the distribution grid. Although VGI is well-positioned to help solve these problems, industry must overcome significant technical and regulatory hurdles for the technology to succeed.